The Logic of Causes

Logic is everywhere in our life, and it is very useful in solving some complicated problems. Practising logic is also a good way to enhance our understanding of certain concepts and make groundbreaking discoveries.

I have long been interested in logicology for its pragmatism. When I witness an event, I always attempt to find out its causes. In other words, I want to deduce in what conditions do something happen. There are three types of causes that I regularly consider about.

A precipitating cause is the most direct and subjective description of what makes something happen. We can identify the subject who is acting on the object, and then combine them into one sentence by basic language rules. It is the most understandable (and maybe the most detailed) cause and is generally employed in the field of arts, humanities and social sciences.

A necessary cause is the premise for an event. Only if the result happen can we deduce some conditions are met. Without these conditions, the event cannot take place. However, it is notable that even if the cause exist, there will be possibly no corresponding result. In mathematics and natural sciences, the necessary cause is vital to investigate and analyze many intriguing phenomena.

A sufficient cause is not necessary, but contribute to the event’s occurence. Some conditions can make the incidence of the result, but without them the event may still occur. The sufficient cause can be used to predict what things will happen so that we take actions to alter its impact on the event.

Here are some self-made examples of events and their corresponding causes:

Event: A tsunami in 2004 caused mass fatality in Indonesia.

Precipitating cause: Consecutive huge waves of water striked the ground and hurted many people along the coast.

The cause can be regarded as a witness telling us about how the tsunami takes people’s lives away. The waves of water is the subject that is acting on people, the object, who receive the physical damage.

Necessary cause: There were a lot of visitors and dwellers in the shore of Indonesia.

We can see that when a lot of people are nearby the sea, it is very impossible for something to cause their death. However, should the fatality takes place, there must be visitors and dewellers in the shore to let the tsunami strike.

Sufficient cause: Earthquake in Indian Ocean provided enough energy for water to travel in high speed and immediately attack the ground.

A tsunami can be caused by earthquake. However, other causes, such as volcanic eruption, typhoon or hurricane, and some meteor event, may also lead to its occurence.

Event: Tom got an “F” in General Biology course.

Precipitating cause: During final exam, Tom’s teacher saw him glancing at other students’ answer sheet.

Oops. It’s unfortunate for Tom to fail the exam because he is cheating. This behavior is observed by his teacher, who angrily let him fail the course. (By the way, abide to the academic integrity!)

Necessary cause: Doing something that violates students’ rules.

Assume the school has all smart students. Then, to fail the course, they should violate the policy. The violation may not be observed by teacher, so some students get passed the course without penalty. Well, still, I personally do not encourage that behavior.

Sufficient cause: Cheating on exam.

Cheating on a final exam will automatically give Tom a big F. However, other factors, such as not submitting assignments, missing quizzes, being absent from classes, can also make him receive this embarassing grade.

Event: Bright, shiny and hard diamond became black, dark and soft graphite.

Precipitating cause: Heating of the diamond changed it into a black, powdered substance called graphite.

This is a phenomenon that we can directly observe in real world. The color change is very rapid so that we can say the heating process changes the diamond into the graphite.

Necessary cause: The reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Gibbs free energy change, ΔG°, is calculated using Hess’s Law: ΔG° = ΔH° – TΔS°. It determines the direction of the reaction. Because the entropy change, ΔS°, for the conversion of diamond into graphite is positive (the energy in carbon atoms becomes more dispersed), the higher the temperature, the more negative the Gibbs free energy change will be. The reaction goes to the direction in forming graphite.

Sufficient cause: The heat applied made the reactants exceed the activation energy.

Giving heat to the reactants increase their internal energy, possibly breaking the boundary to change them into transition state. The reactants are said to reach their activation energy, and the reaction can proceed. Of course, there are other ways to change diamond into graphite, like using catalysts, putting pressure on it or just let it stay for millions of years, as indicated by some research studies.

From the examples I mentioned, we can see the logic of causes applies to all the aspects of our life, though the lines among the three types of causes may be not clear if the phenomena have a lot of factors to consider about. Overall, the skill of analyzing the causes is essential. It can not only help us to ace an exam, but also propel our creativity to make benefit to the world. I am sure to keep employing and refining this mindset.

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3 Random Facts About My Country

(Request from my friend to translate his passage.)

Fact 1 – the Summer Palace (culture): The Summer Palace is in Haidian District, the northeast part of Beijing, 15 kilometers from the center of the city. It is the largest and most well preserved royal garden of China. The Summer Palace contains famous natural and cultural landscapes, so it is commonly known as “the museum of royal gardens”. First established in 1750, the Summer Palace provided noble families with rest and recreation. In the end of Qing Dynasty, it became the major dwelling place for the royal. The palace is placed in the World Heritage Sites, and is also one of the first set of 5A traveling sites in China.

Fact 2 – Chinese Dream (politics): The concept “Chinese Dream” was first proposed by Chairman Xi in 2012. Its creation increased ethnic pride and confidence. “Chinese Dream” virtually means to make rejuvenation of the Chinese nation come true, which is the most grandiose dream. Specifically, “Chinese Dream” aims to let people receive better education, higher income, more refined health care, and cleaner environment. Thus, the young generation should be courageous to chase and achieve their dream.

Fact 3 – Agriculture (economics): China is a big agricultural country, and is also one of the origins of worldwide cultivation. Crops such as rice and wheat are all stemmed from China. After the founding of new China, the government was very focused on agricultural production, gradually increasing its investment, thus accelerating its modernization. As a result, Chinese agriculture earned great achievement. The crop yields for various products are increasing rapidly. The productions of grains, cottons, and peanuts in China are in the first place of the world. By using less than ten percent of cultivated land on Earth, China nourishes more than one fifth of the world’s population.

I’m really here.

It’s been half a year since I wrote the most recent article. Unfortunately, I got rejected by my first-choice. But, still, one of my favorite universities, UCSD, selected me with a pair of wise eyes. I am here, in the most comfortable city in US, to pursue my four (or three) years’ career as a biochemistry student, and experience a lot of wonderful people and stuffs.

The last half year was busy and fulfilling. During the decision-waiting period I prepared for British and USA Biology Olympics reading Campbell Biology (That’s a great textbook!) and got the Gold Prize just right. (Though it might be a little cheaty because some lower-grade students are competing with me.) Not much inflicted by my applied universities’ admission decisions, I continued studying at Shenzhen Middle School and passed AP Psychology and Statistics exams with scores of 5. I traveled to some great sceneries in Guilin and Nanchang. These two cities were beautiful. Being a volunteer in International Botanical Congress, I made some friends, listened to lectures given by famous figures in botanical research, and knew some updated news about plant sciences. Besides, the summer vacation was the first time I earned money by having a job. I taught some students about basic STEM courses – Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology personally. I realized how arduous teachers could be: preparing for courses, checking students’ homeworks, and even solving academic and disciplinary conflicts. Nevertheless, these students were also hard-working and I could feel them trying to get track of what they study. These new knowledges were really strange and tough for them, but they can still grab the fundamental concepts. That’s statisfying.

At the present moment, the account should be reactivated, or I will feel guilty for my dear interested readers. Now I have come to the UCSD campus, and it’s time to start a new life, and here are something I’m looking forward to:

  1. Keep and refine my living and learning habits. Now I normally sleep for seven to eight hours per day, and studying normally won’t stress me. So after arriving here, I would still persist the sleeping habit. I don’t know how hard the courses will be, but I will do the best works I can.
  2. Make some foreign friends. An international student might ought to accomplish this if he or she is coming to such a university in US, so do I. There are certainly obstacles, like differences in cultures and ways of thinking. And I don’t speak English so perfectly. Still, I will try.
  3. Be fulfilled. This is not easy. I cannot do anything out of myself. There are lots of interactions between individuals, and not everyone wants to collaborate with me. But I think my friendly and cheerful nature will work.

Wish I have good times during tomorrow’s orientation!

Aside

Launch a Project Experiment: Gibberellin and Brassinolide

AP Statistics Project Proposal

(It has to be an experiment, no observational study will be accepted)

Group members:

Name ID
Jiayi Liu 2014530054
Ziyi Wang 2014530070
Fan Xu 2014530268
Junhui He 2014530723
  1. Topic (What is the research question)

Comparison of the Effects of Gibberellin and Brassinolide on Soybean Seed Germination

  1. Sampling (Be specific about how subjects might be selected)

Randomly select 120 soybeans that are purchased from the same source.

  1. Variables:

Explanatory variables:

Type of plant hormone being used: categorical, no plant hormone (control), Gibberellin, Brassinolide, or both.

Response Variable: the height of seedlings after 2 days; the height of seedlings after 7 days.

  1. Treatment:

We have 4 kinds of treatments.

For the selected seeds, randomly assign them to different treatments, which is soaking the soybean seeds in specified solution for 12 hours. Each treatment has 30 seeds:

No plant hormone 10-6 mol/L Gibberellin
10-6 mol/L Brassinolide 5×10-7 mol/L Gibberellin + 5×10-7 mol/L Brassinolide

After soaking, transplant the seeds to soil. Water the seeds every 12 hours, take an account of the proportion of germinated seeds. Also measure the height of seedlings after 2 days and 7 days.

  1. What extraneous variables might influence the response?

Environmental factors, like temperature, light intensity, water, and even soil conditions all could have impact on seed germination.

  1. How does the design protect against its potential influence on the response through blocking, direct control, or randomization?

We would use preliminary experiment to ensure the optimal conditions for plant growth. Despite that, we would also apply:

Direct control: All the seeds are grown in the same room and are expose to the same environmental factors so that the extraneous factors’ effects are not confounded with those of the experimental variables.

Randomization: Randomly assign the seeds to different treatment groups to ensure that the experiment does not systematically favor one treatment over another.

Replication: There is considerable amount of individuals for each treatment to achieve an adequate number of observations for each experimental condition.

  1. Statistical method (e.g. we plan to use…method to explore … We hope to have a …result)

Normally, we would apply what we learned from descriptive statistics: Calculating important statistics, like the mean heights of seedlings, and representing them in the form of a bar chart for comparison.

For the part of inference, we plan to use two-sample t-test to explore whether there is a significant difference in the effects of different plant hormones in the heights of seedlings. We hope that there is significant difference so that we could have evidence to support that one plant hormone is greater in promoting germination than the other.

We also plan to use regression analysis to explore whether there is a linear relationship between the heights of seedlings after 2 days and those after 7 days for a specific treatment group, thus implicitly see if each hormone has prolonged effect.

The Reason, Process, and Meanings behind Gregor’s Transformation in the Metamorphosis

The Metamorphosis presents a story about a man’s alienation from his family: Gregor, working arduously for his family, suddenly turns into a bug, and progressively gets abandoned by his parents and sister. However, beyond this abrupt event, Gregor already is a social “vermin” – justified by his inability to execute individuality; his transformation is, in my opinion, also a gradual process that not only symbolizes the changes in his perspectives toward his surroundings, but also the alteration of his family’s thoughts about himself.

Gregor’s transformation illustrates his problems about general isolation from modern society that put expectations to his hard-working. Long before Gregor turns into a vermin, he has wished to get equally well-treated with his colleagues and family members but fails. As Gregor says, “That’s all I’d have to try with my boss; I’d be fired on the spot. Anyway, who knows if that wouldn’t be a very good thing for me. If I didn’t hold back for my parents’ sake, I would have quit long ago.” (1.5), he is constrained by the working conditions that force him to get up early while seeing other workers enjoying their breakfast. Turning into a giant bug seems a fulfillment of his will to get rid of this job. In addition, he is the only one who can support the family, but after this transformation deprives him of the ability to work, every member attempts to expel him without considering his contribution, further suggesting his verminous position before the metamorphosis really takes place.

The establishing process of transformation stems from Gregor’s tedious lifestyle. Working as a traveling salesman, he can presumably get to know a lot of things from outside world. Instead, he complains that there cannot be long-enduring relationships with other people around this business. Besides, he cannot have the time like his family members to get relaxation from reading newspapers, playing music instruments, etc. Such monotonous life mode makes him distasteful, as depicted after his waking up: “His room, a regular human room, only a little on the small side, lay quiet between the four familiar walls.” (1.2) Though Gregor is familiar with the room, he feels uncomfortable about it, as emphasized by the phrase “regular human room”.

Despite Gregor’s literal transformation, there are more, symbolically, transformations about his entire family. His father most directly shows the outrage toward Gregor, and as he returns to his job, wearing up the clothes, he regains the authority of supporting family and controlling Gregor’s will. His mother, being stunned by the moment as she sees the vermin, feels desperate about her son’s mishap but later turns in to suppress her anxiety. What’s more is about Greta’s transformation: “She had in fact noticed that Gregor needed plenty of room to crawl around in; and on the other hand, as best she could tell, he never used the furniture at all” (2.22). As Greta notices her brother’s needs, she comes to be more decisive in taking care of Gregor, accompanying the decrease of Gregor’s agency. This is even testified later when Gregor scares the boarders away, it is Greta who makes the ultimate decision to get rid of Gregor as the family is dealing with a kitchen bug.

Summing up all the points about the why, how, and what about his transformation, Gregor is unhappy about his situations, living with a verminous lifestyle. The transformation makes him lose respect and the ability to support family, but also changes the entire family’s roles, as exemplified by Greta’s increasing agency of making decisions.


Works Cited

“The Metamorphosis.” by Franz Kafka. Trans. David Wyllie. Sweden: Wisehouse Classics, 2015. Print.

Minded Statistics Mind Map

Mind Map

Recently, we had gone through all the materials covered by AP Statistics. As our teacher announced so far, we students, as separate groups, built mind maps to generalize the entire knowledge system inside the statistics class. I saw a lot of great mind maps from other groups that not only included the necessary things we have to know, but also demonstrated these things with innovative themes, like using some objects to allude to the processes of studying statistics.

The ideals and philosophy behind our groups’ construction were also clear. We separated the learned knowledge into four parts: Collecting Data, Exploring Data, Anticipating Patterns, and Making Inferences, with each part accompanied by certain structure of the plant body, while the plant itself is similar to we students, who are going to make our way to develop understanding about statistics.

The “root” – Collecting Data – is the basis of the entire plant. It is necessary to have good research methods in order to collect, analyze, and use the data we accessed, as root needs to absorb water and minerals from the soil so that the plant can grow taller.

The “stem and leaves” – Exploring Data and Anticipating Patterns – act as support for the plant. We have to harness statistical theories and methods to describe the overall data and predict the trends. Similarly, the stem structurally maintains the plant’s overall shape, where as leaves are required to make nutrients (sugars) through photosynthesis and transport them to the whole organism.

The “flower” – Making Inferences – could be regarded as a beautiful illustration of the plant’s characteristics. We need to infer from the accessed data to get evidence so that we could make conclusions. Like the determinate growth pattern of the apical meristem to floral part should be triggered by biochemical signals and environmental stimuli.

In fact, the plant we drew is a pea plant. It was used by Mendel to conduct research about genetics. Mendel utilized a series of statistical methods, like direct control of the variables, measuring the traits of pea plants, anticipating the probability of phenotypes, and checking his hypothesis using goodness-of-fit test. It was such these statistical methods that aided his generalization of the laws of inheritance. This event, on the other hand, enlightened us to sensibly harness our understanding of statistics and thus make contribution to the development of science, technology and society.

Hope all of you could finally get the “fruits” from statistics!

Image

Project of Albert Camus’ The Plague

Above is our masterpiece!

(We received the project assignment at the right beginning of the new semester. This project instructed students to interpret one of the four levels operated in Albert Camus’ The Plague: Literal, political, metaphysical, and existential. We chose metaphysical. Through a week’s work for it, we accomplished an artwork. Here’s our project reflection, and two corresponding quotes that help us create our painting.)

Part 1: Reflection of The Plague Abstraction Project

Literary ideas could be simply expressed using abstract objects, such as the different levels of thoughts made in The Plague. This book operates on four lens: literal, political, metaphysical, and existential, each of which could be interpreted using different viewpoints. We selected metaphysical level to create our abstract work through the project.

This process took us about half a day to accomplish our goals. First, we brainstormed about the structure of this artwork and its corresponding properties, like colors, shapes, and some highlighted objects. Then we bought the required materials: a piece of A3 paper, pigments, water, and a paint brush. While three other students of our group have done the purchasing or explaining the ideas behind our creation, Blake worked for painting and finished it before school.

The artwork we created so far was revolved around the metaphysical lens that generally emphasizes the presence of evilness and people’s reactions toward it. Therefore, through this understanding, we attempted to create a scene that there was a red bloody background – symbolizing the deaths in The Plague – and a bar that represents Oran’s isolation. Within the bar exists a black solid circle, which is the plague itself, accompanied by various things that stretch out of the circle symbolizing different people’s reactions.

In my opinion, our portrait of this lens was successful in capturing the metaphysical lens through the coloring, shaping, and highlighting of this artwork. We could envision many different reactions in respect to the plague simply through the objects themselves. Besides the red background and the bars, the gloomy color tone also makes the audience aware that the plague puts the entire town into distress. However, since most of our objects that are attached to the black circle were based upon the main characters, our work could also be misinterpreted as portraying literal lens of the novel.

Nevertheless, I gained deeper understanding about different ways to view the novel The Plague. Instead of focusing on the written texts, I tried to convert the main ideas expressed in this novel into a simpler, abstract painting. Through the project, therefore, I knew to make what seemed complex into a vivid imagery. Moreover, I got to appreciate other groups’ works, and understood that there were other lens successfully portrayed in their paintings. Their works gave me insights about expressing different levels of meanings through abstraction.

Part 2: Analysis of quotes from The Plague in metaphysical level

Quote: Generally speaking, they did not lack courage, bandied more jokes than lamentations, and made a show of accepting cheerfully unpleasantnesses that obviously could be only passing. In short, they kept up appearances. (Part 2, Chapter 10)

Analysis: While the plague is expected to put the whole town into silence and fear, there are certain citizens who, surprisingly, would express their feelings in an extreme way. Instead of focusing on the plague, they seem to be indifferent toward its existence, pretend to continue normal lifestyles, and even accept the truth. This absurdity of actions makes us aware that different people conceptualize the world in different aspects, and thus behave distinctively to the society they perceive. They surely are the observers of this entire catastrophe, but they have different perspectives about it.

Quote: Rambert said he’d thought it over very carefully, and his views hadn’t changed, but if he went away, he would feel ashamed of himself, and that would embarrass his relations with the woman he loved. Showing more animation, Rieux told him that was sheer nonsense; there was nothing shameful in preferring happiness. (Part 4, Chapter 20)

Analysis: Confronting this plague, people may differ in their reactions throughout the passage of time. Rambert, though occasionally attempts to escape the town to seek his wife, changes his decisions through the impact of Rieux. The dynamism of his changing actions imply the transformation of his original viewpoints about the plague and the isolation of Oran. The interaction between the two characters also illustrates that in the face of evilness, they both decide to fight against the plague, though Rieux regards it as a necessary duty, while Rambert does this job through a moral conflict between rightness and wrongness.

Rhetorical Analysis of Man’s Search for Meaning

During the time around World War II, psychoanalysis had set its reputation in the field of psychology. Nevertheless, new theories of interpreting psychological factors arose and got new attention from the public – logotherapy was one of them. In Man’s Search for Meaning, the author explicated on his experience in concentration camp and the lessons derived from his sufferings. These things obtained him new insights about logotherapy as he explored deeper into the psychology of human beings.

Of course, the first part of this book took a long account telling the experience, but what’s more important is the three phases of the prisoners inside the concentration camp. “When one examines the vast amount of material which has been amassed as the result of many prisoners’ observations and experiences, three phases of the inmate’s mental reactions to camp life become apparent.” (P22) As Frankl observed the prisoners’ behaviors, he generalized them into three discontinuous segments, and took separated paragraphs to illustrate several examples of these phases. Moreover, the story was not written in chronological order, but rather in the form of different episodes that included different characters’ interactions. The full book itself is in first person, but besides the introspection Frankl took about his own experience in the concentration camp, it also encompassed other people’s thoughts about their own life’s meanings, as Frankl concluded from his observations: “It can be readily understood that such a state of strain, coupled with the constant necessity of concentrating on the task of staying alive, forced the prisoner’s inner life down to a primitive level.” (P40) Obviously, the author took his voice to convey the meanings that various factors implemented inside the camp might contribute to the mental disorder of the prisoners. By contrast, therefore, the author, having blocked the negative impacts of these factors, has gained the credibility of explaining what he envisioned about logotherapy.

The second part, being more naturally theoretical, describes his own psychological theory. In this part, Frankl explored on the way his school of psychology came into maturation, including his experiences of being a psychotherapist and his patients’ diagnosis. As he proposed several basic components involved in logotherapy, he also postulated this theory as similar but different from psychoanalysis: “Logotherapy, in comparison with psychoanalysis, is a method less retrospective and less introspective. Logotherapy focuses rather on the future, that is to say, on the meanings to be fulfilled by the patient in his future.” (P104) Through this explanation, Frankl successfully arrived at a new concept for the society to be learned, that is, looking forward to the dreams people have, and the motivation they inherently possess instead of neurosis. Compared to Freud’s relatively emphatic tone in The Interpretation of Dreams, Frankl tries to be communicative with the readers to introduce this seemingly sophisticated topic, thus making them readily capable of understanding his psychological theory’s concepts.

The postscript plunges into the optimism beyond tragic situations. As he mentioned, people suffers in different degrees, they have distinct views about their lives: some people are capable of coping with stressors while others are not. This distinction had given the readers a warning sign about their own attitudes toward living. Traumatic events and daily hassles all implement on the psychological well-being of men, so “the human capacity to turn creatively turn life’s negative aspects into something positive or constructive” (P139) is rather a fundamental part of Frankl’s ideal about tragic optimism. It is easy to observe this pattern during our learning of ideals of human emotion, stress, and health. Therefore, if the previous two parts are said to be describing his own psychological theory, the postscript answers the readers’ confusion of the theory’s application through connecting concepts of logotherapy to the general knowledge in the field of psychology.

Life has a meaning. Throughout this book, this central theme almost surrounds the entire text to testify different people’s fates inside the concentration camp, as they have diverged degree of hopefulness. Frankl often quoted Nietzsche’s maxim, “He who has a why to live can bear with almost any how.” (P5) This sentence emphasizes his belief that men possess the ability to choose what is meaningful in his life. There are also a lot of arguments inside the first part. For instance, love gives life meaning. As the Frankl thought about his wife in the concentration camp, he could be relieved from the hardships he experienced: He did not know about his wife’s status, but was rather empowered by taking the emotional burden he had for thinking of her. In author’s view, religion also gives life meaning, as individuals are aware of the assignments the divinity gives for them a reason to survive. What’s surprising to the readers, still, is Frankl’s idea that suffering gives life meaning. He was not frustrated with the will to meaning though he was in bad conditions. He suffered for his loss to honor something he once owned.

The intended audience, ostensibly, is those who have experienced intense stresses in any way. Just like what the author mentioned about his life in concentration camp and other patients’ accounts, they could, in some way, be connected to the powerful message of this book about dealing with those stressors. It also has certain identification with people who have other sufferings, such as oppression or persecution, though not physically implemented, could also hurt their feelings. They might find some ways to cope with the stresses through the exploration of this book. Nevertheless, even people with relatively easy lives could find ways to connect to this book. They surely have gained adequate success, and possibly possess need for achievement. However, Frankl still prompted them to find deeper levels of their lives’ meanings. We adolescents, who are susceptible to identity and role confusion, can also be enlightened by this book’s reflection on purposes of people’s life circumstances and choices.

References

Frankl, V. (1992) Man’s Search for Meaning (Fourth Edition.). Boston, MA: Beacon Press

Thank You, My Interview

This winter break, I am not relaxed. Earlier than that, I had declined my classmates’ several invitations of a trip to Japan. From the start of the break (January 12), I was just preparing for the upcoming InitialView interview in six days, and struggled for a while to think about my own words: What I could say about myself? Is it really good to say this? Will the admission office of my dream school value my speech? Sometimes I even thought whether my TOEFL Speaking score – the unchangeable label – would put stereotype threat to my interview performance.

Obviously, I took a lot of time to draft my interview according to my past events. I picked my most dedicated extracurricular activity – mangrove forest protection – as the main topic around the interview. “Whatever the interviewer’s trick is, I am going to swerve his or her interest to this activity.” Additionally, NOVA Monthly magazine club, my violin playing, as well as my campus life, are all encompassed in the big bundle of my mind. Gradually, I also got many insights beyond these activities, making me surprised about the power of introspection.

The preparation was intense, but it worth. Everyday I stared at the mirror and warned myself to be expressive. I sat in front of my father, who was, not definitely great at English, acted as my interviewer. As he questioned me about various aspects of my life, I really had to take time to process what he intended to say despite answering his “curiosities”. Nevertheless, I found myself really fluent in speaking, and whatever question my dear papa asked about, I would provide satisfactory response that was already packed in my mind full of the materials. Of course, my seniors also cordially offer their experiences last year during the InitialView and encourage me to catch this chance and make a hit; my foreign teachers in my school, though not available for preparation, also provide tips for me to get rid of this interview.

Still, the day will come. I got into the CBD of Shenzhen and was elevated to the fourteenth floor of the Time Finance Centre. There I saw teacher who instructed me to take a writing. “How to love a person?” Well, this topic was easy, and I harnessed what I learned from psychology course. After the writing, I was sent to have an interview.

At first, the interview asked me about my plan, and I told her the truth, that I would play violin on stage. (Actually, I just finished my performance yesterday!) However, as the interview progressed, I thought the topic about violin was talked about too much, and I took a strategic turn to swerve her attention to mangrove forest protection. Fortunately, I finished the entire interview process.

Today, I received my report, and I was quite satisfied with my results. My parents took a look at my chubby face and my seniors, as well, appreciated how great my interview was. I am confident to send my interview video to my dream school’s admission office. Now, as I send my InitialView video to the admission office of my dream school, I also send a seed of hope to it.

Status

Bourgeoisie’s Anxiety

Nowadays, more and more families decide to send their children study abroad. Despite those definitely rich people who regard the tuition fee as an ignorable fraction of their income, more and more middle classes, including my family, also make this choice. What’s different, though, is that we have to make plan to use money.

No need to mention my motivation beyond studying abroad. The core question is, why would my parents overcome the challenge of great cost and support my education? From the beginning of my high school life, anything about testing, studying, and applying is tied to certain expense.

Standardized tests are necessary part for our profile. However, registering for a test is, though not that costly, still countable to my parents’ weekly salary. For rich students’ ideals, it is good to test frequently and show the greatest score to the application office. But for the relatively poor students like me, I have to decide when is the most suitable schedule for me to plan a test and guarantee that I cannot lose the chance to best behave myself at that time. You now perceive the stress. Moreover, lack of context also puts stereotype threat to me. I must to confess that rich people really experience more about the world, and they have greater insights to certain questions. It seems inevitable for me to be considered less knowledgeable.

Cram school. Yes, in this generation full of intelligent people, it is common to see many students studying in such a place. We see from a lot of institutions hosting such auxiliary classes that their advertisements are great lists of students who get high scores on specific tests, thus implicitly propagating the effectiveness of aided education. But the cost is even far higher than the standardized testing fee itself. When preparing for such an exam, rich students really put great efforts in cram school. On the contrary, I am not able to assess the class simply because I have to seriously manage my cost. Furthermore, there are many academic competitions that require exceptional skills on certain subject field, and I heard my peers taking part in the course and got big, big, big prize. Is the prize really big? Or, it is just exaggerated by those cram institutions. Well, at least my careful listening to the school class and self-study technique work for me to win prizes important for my career interest.

College application is more of a big deal, even the cost of testing and studying is relatively too cheap to be mentioned. Of course, the application fee is not expensive, but the expenditure beyond the college application could be so enormous for some students who get to… Oh, the next thing I am going to say may be sensitive. Due to incomplete statistic, the majority of the international students in my district take agencies. You might not know this, let me explain this term to you. Generally, the agency is an institution which manage registered students’ materials and give them advice about the best way to succeed during application period. Sometimes, students who get to agencies earlier in high school do extracurricular activities out of their suggestions. It seems that the applicants who do not have an agency but apply by themselves are heretics, and even my community of international applicants make a term for this – DIY applicant. I am not completely DIY, though; I just use another way to aid my application, that is to ask help from seniors and my own school’s counselors. They are totally free and are glad to solve my problems.

We bourgeoisies are really not in advantage about these matters. However, we have different mindset from those of rich students which put more emphasis on intrapersonal intelligence. To make ourselves more self-aware is to make ourselves more outstanding.