Launch a Project Experiment: Gibberellin and Brassinolide

AP Statistics Project Proposal

(It has to be an experiment, no observational study will be accepted)

Group members:

Name ID
Jiayi Liu 2014530054
Ziyi Wang 2014530070
Fan Xu 2014530268
Junhui He 2014530723
  1. Topic (What is the research question)

Comparison of the Effects of Gibberellin and Brassinolide on Soybean Seed Germination

  1. Sampling (Be specific about how subjects might be selected)

Randomly select 120 soybeans that are purchased from the same source.

  1. Variables:

Explanatory variables:

Type of plant hormone being used: categorical, no plant hormone (control), Gibberellin, Brassinolide, or both.

Response Variable: the height of seedlings after 2 days; the height of seedlings after 7 days.

  1. Treatment:

We have 4 kinds of treatments.

For the selected seeds, randomly assign them to different treatments, which is soaking the soybean seeds in specified solution for 12 hours. Each treatment has 30 seeds:

No plant hormone 10-6 mol/L Gibberellin
10-6 mol/L Brassinolide 5×10-7 mol/L Gibberellin + 5×10-7 mol/L Brassinolide

After soaking, transplant the seeds to soil. Water the seeds every 12 hours, take an account of the proportion of germinated seeds. Also measure the height of seedlings after 2 days and 7 days.

  1. What extraneous variables might influence the response?

Environmental factors, like temperature, light intensity, water, and even soil conditions all could have impact on seed germination.

  1. How does the design protect against its potential influence on the response through blocking, direct control, or randomization?

We would use preliminary experiment to ensure the optimal conditions for plant growth. Despite that, we would also apply:

Direct control: All the seeds are grown in the same room and are expose to the same environmental factors so that the extraneous factors’ effects are not confounded with those of the experimental variables.

Randomization: Randomly assign the seeds to different treatment groups to ensure that the experiment does not systematically favor one treatment over another.

Replication: There is considerable amount of individuals for each treatment to achieve an adequate number of observations for each experimental condition.

  1. Statistical method (e.g. we plan to use…method to explore … We hope to have a …result)

Normally, we would apply what we learned from descriptive statistics: Calculating important statistics, like the mean heights of seedlings, and representing them in the form of a bar chart for comparison.

For the part of inference, we plan to use two-sample t-test to explore whether there is a significant difference in the effects of different plant hormones in the heights of seedlings. We hope that there is significant difference so that we could have evidence to support that one plant hormone is greater in promoting germination than the other.

We also plan to use regression analysis to explore whether there is a linear relationship between the heights of seedlings after 2 days and those after 7 days for a specific treatment group, thus implicitly see if each hormone has prolonged effect.


Project of Albert Camus’ The Plague

Above is our masterpiece!

(We received the project assignment at the right beginning of the new semester. This project instructed students to interpret one of the four levels operated in Albert Camus’ The Plague: Literal, political, metaphysical, and existential. We chose metaphysical. Through a week’s work for it, we accomplished an artwork. Here’s our project reflection, and two corresponding quotes that help us create our painting.)

Part 1: Reflection of The Plague Abstraction Project

Literary ideas could be simply expressed using abstract objects, such as the different levels of thoughts made in The Plague. This book operates on four lens: literal, political, metaphysical, and existential, each of which could be interpreted using different viewpoints. We selected metaphysical level to create our abstract work through the project.

This process took us about half a day to accomplish our goals. First, we brainstormed about the structure of this artwork and its corresponding properties, like colors, shapes, and some highlighted objects. Then we bought the required materials: a piece of A3 paper, pigments, water, and a paint brush. While three other students of our group have done the purchasing or explaining the ideas behind our creation, Blake worked for painting and finished it before school.

The artwork we created so far was revolved around the metaphysical lens that generally emphasizes the presence of evilness and people’s reactions toward it. Therefore, through this understanding, we attempted to create a scene that there was a red bloody background – symbolizing the deaths in The Plague – and a bar that represents Oran’s isolation. Within the bar exists a black solid circle, which is the plague itself, accompanied by various things that stretch out of the circle symbolizing different people’s reactions.

In my opinion, our portrait of this lens was successful in capturing the metaphysical lens through the coloring, shaping, and highlighting of this artwork. We could envision many different reactions in respect to the plague simply through the objects themselves. Besides the red background and the bars, the gloomy color tone also makes the audience aware that the plague puts the entire town into distress. However, since most of our objects that are attached to the black circle were based upon the main characters, our work could also be misinterpreted as portraying literal lens of the novel.

Nevertheless, I gained deeper understanding about different ways to view the novel The Plague. Instead of focusing on the written texts, I tried to convert the main ideas expressed in this novel into a simpler, abstract painting. Through the project, therefore, I knew to make what seemed complex into a vivid imagery. Moreover, I got to appreciate other groups’ works, and understood that there were other lens successfully portrayed in their paintings. Their works gave me insights about expressing different levels of meanings through abstraction.

Part 2: Analysis of quotes from The Plague in metaphysical level

Quote: Generally speaking, they did not lack courage, bandied more jokes than lamentations, and made a show of accepting cheerfully unpleasantnesses that obviously could be only passing. In short, they kept up appearances. (Part 2, Chapter 10)

Analysis: While the plague is expected to put the whole town into silence and fear, there are certain citizens who, surprisingly, would express their feelings in an extreme way. Instead of focusing on the plague, they seem to be indifferent toward its existence, pretend to continue normal lifestyles, and even accept the truth. This absurdity of actions makes us aware that different people conceptualize the world in different aspects, and thus behave distinctively to the society they perceive. They surely are the observers of this entire catastrophe, but they have different perspectives about it.

Quote: Rambert said he’d thought it over very carefully, and his views hadn’t changed, but if he went away, he would feel ashamed of himself, and that would embarrass his relations with the woman he loved. Showing more animation, Rieux told him that was sheer nonsense; there was nothing shameful in preferring happiness. (Part 4, Chapter 20)

Analysis: Confronting this plague, people may differ in their reactions throughout the passage of time. Rambert, though occasionally attempts to escape the town to seek his wife, changes his decisions through the impact of Rieux. The dynamism of his changing actions imply the transformation of his original viewpoints about the plague and the isolation of Oran. The interaction between the two characters also illustrates that in the face of evilness, they both decide to fight against the plague, though Rieux regards it as a necessary duty, while Rambert does this job through a moral conflict between rightness and wrongness.

Rhetorical Analysis of Man’s Search for Meaning

During the time around World War II, psychoanalysis had set its reputation in the field of psychology. Nevertheless, new theories of interpreting psychological factors arose and got new attention from the public – logotherapy was one of them. In Man’s Search for Meaning, the author explicated on his experience in concentration camp and the lessons derived from his sufferings. These things obtained him new insights about logotherapy as he explored deeper into the psychology of human beings.

Of course, the first part of this book took a long account telling the experience, but what’s more important is the three phases of the prisoners inside the concentration camp. “When one examines the vast amount of material which has been amassed as the result of many prisoners’ observations and experiences, three phases of the inmate’s mental reactions to camp life become apparent.” (P22) As Frankl observed the prisoners’ behaviors, he generalized them into three discontinuous segments, and took separated paragraphs to illustrate several examples of these phases. Moreover, the story was not written in chronological order, but rather in the form of different episodes that included different characters’ interactions. The full book itself is in first person, but besides the introspection Frankl took about his own experience in the concentration camp, it also encompassed other people’s thoughts about their own life’s meanings, as Frankl concluded from his observations: “It can be readily understood that such a state of strain, coupled with the constant necessity of concentrating on the task of staying alive, forced the prisoner’s inner life down to a primitive level.” (P40) Obviously, the author took his voice to convey the meanings that various factors implemented inside the camp might contribute to the mental disorder of the prisoners. By contrast, therefore, the author, having blocked the negative impacts of these factors, has gained the credibility of explaining what he envisioned about logotherapy.

The second part, being more naturally theoretical, describes his own psychological theory. In this part, Frankl explored on the way his school of psychology came into maturation, including his experiences of being a psychotherapist and his patients’ diagnosis. As he proposed several basic components involved in logotherapy, he also postulated this theory as similar but different from psychoanalysis: “Logotherapy, in comparison with psychoanalysis, is a method less retrospective and less introspective. Logotherapy focuses rather on the future, that is to say, on the meanings to be fulfilled by the patient in his future.” (P104) Through this explanation, Frankl successfully arrived at a new concept for the society to be learned, that is, looking forward to the dreams people have, and the motivation they inherently possess instead of neurosis. Compared to Freud’s relatively emphatic tone in The Interpretation of Dreams, Frankl tries to be communicative with the readers to introduce this seemingly sophisticated topic, thus making them readily capable of understanding his psychological theory’s concepts.

The postscript plunges into the optimism beyond tragic situations. As he mentioned, people suffers in different degrees, they have distinct views about their lives: some people are capable of coping with stressors while others are not. This distinction had given the readers a warning sign about their own attitudes toward living. Traumatic events and daily hassles all implement on the psychological well-being of men, so “the human capacity to turn creatively turn life’s negative aspects into something positive or constructive” (P139) is rather a fundamental part of Frankl’s ideal about tragic optimism. It is easy to observe this pattern during our learning of ideals of human emotion, stress, and health. Therefore, if the previous two parts are said to be describing his own psychological theory, the postscript answers the readers’ confusion of the theory’s application through connecting concepts of logotherapy to the general knowledge in the field of psychology.

Life has a meaning. Throughout this book, this central theme almost surrounds the entire text to testify different people’s fates inside the concentration camp, as they have diverged degree of hopefulness. Frankl often quoted Nietzsche’s maxim, “He who has a why to live can bear with almost any how.” (P5) This sentence emphasizes his belief that men possess the ability to choose what is meaningful in his life. There are also a lot of arguments inside the first part. For instance, love gives life meaning. As the Frankl thought about his wife in the concentration camp, he could be relieved from the hardships he experienced: He did not know about his wife’s status, but was rather empowered by taking the emotional burden he had for thinking of her. In author’s view, religion also gives life meaning, as individuals are aware of the assignments the divinity gives for them a reason to survive. What’s surprising to the readers, still, is Frankl’s idea that suffering gives life meaning. He was not frustrated with the will to meaning though he was in bad conditions. He suffered for his loss to honor something he once owned.

The intended audience, ostensibly, is those who have experienced intense stresses in any way. Just like what the author mentioned about his life in concentration camp and other patients’ accounts, they could, in some way, be connected to the powerful message of this book about dealing with those stressors. It also has certain identification with people who have other sufferings, such as oppression or persecution, though not physically implemented, could also hurt their feelings. They might find some ways to cope with the stresses through the exploration of this book. Nevertheless, even people with relatively easy lives could find ways to connect to this book. They surely have gained adequate success, and possibly possess need for achievement. However, Frankl still prompted them to find deeper levels of their lives’ meanings. We adolescents, who are susceptible to identity and role confusion, can also be enlightened by this book’s reflection on purposes of people’s life circumstances and choices.


Frankl, V. (1992) Man’s Search for Meaning (Fourth Edition.). Boston, MA: Beacon Press

Is Don Quixote Really Insane?

(Just a homework-level response.)

Don Quixote, thought by most of the characters in Don Quixote, is really insane, because he has all the characteristics of a mad person, such as a crazy set of ideas that make him expose both himself and others to danger. However, his behaviors are actually out of consciousness, for he is involved into the chivalric fantasy illustrated in the books he read and tries to restore it by taking the actions that are, though, unacceptable for others.

Throughout most of the story, Don Quixote tries to deal with certain issues with his basic standard of loyalty, humility, and honor, besides the violence part. Definitely, he does great endeavor to protect “Dulcinea” from being debunked by other people about her beauty, showing that by taking righteous actions, he possesses faith to his love. Don Quixote also has humble and honest temperament, as he is sharing the story with the group of people he met in the mountain: “The canon stood amazed at Don Quixote’s methodical and orderly madness, in describing the adventure of the Knight of the Lake.” ( The phrase “methodical and orderly” illustrates that Don Quixote has a conscious and sincere explication about the adventure he describes. In fact, because he has read so many adventure books and knows the rules so well, he has, basically, created an entire belief system that is open to rational argument. Moreover, his chivalric deeds do win some people’s admiration, though most of them just think of them as entertaining. Nevertheless, in protecting his honor, as in the moment when he is defeated by Knight of the White Moon, he does follow the conditions and decide to return back home.

Actually, Don Quixote is never too stubborn about his optimism about being a knight-errant. At part I of the fiction he shows great enthusiasm for preparing to save the world, leaving others with the impression that he is insane. However, when the story progresses, we can obviously see that his behaviors are controlled, as he thinks about the rationale behind his chivalric deeds. Near the end of the story, he returns to his true self, “I perceive nonsense and impertinence of my knight adventure books.” ( What might account for the gradual change of his behaviors is the changes in others’ perspectives about Don Quixote. From the start of the novel, he is already sane, though not recognized by the characters around him. But as he grows reputation, people tend to regard him as a celebrity, therefore finding out more details about his personalities. These people put some impact on Don Quixote’s life experiences that help him regulating his actions in a more rational way.

“He is mad past recovery, but yet he has lucid intervals.” ( Ostensibly, we see Don Quixote as insane because of his abnormal actions. However, looking deeper inside his motives, we should know that he is a propagator of chivalric spirits, transforming the core value of knights into real-life use.


Works Cited

“Don Quixote.” The Norton Anthology of World Literature. Trans. Samuel Putnam. Third ed. Vol.C. New York and London: W. W. Norton, 2012, 386-516. Print.

Effects of Numbers and Labels of Choices on People’s Purchasing Decisions

Here is a well-written psychology essay for our group project of AP Psychology. Basically, this research centered on two independent variables, and we used appropriate statistical methods to conduct our data collection and analysis. Please check out the abstract below:

The experiment studies people’s decision making under different labels and numbers of choices when they are buying products. The questionnaires simulate the situation of choosing set purchase for mobile phone fee and four types of questionnaires (cheaper and standard; standard and premium; cheaper, standard and premium; standard, premium and super-premium) and 360 in total are distributed in three locations targeting three types of people: the middle-age and elder, teenagers and official staff. The result majorly corresponds to our hypothesis: differently-designed labels can influence customers to select different choices.

Keywords: decision, label, number of choices, purchase, subliminal message


AP Physics B Project Coil

Here features our team’s physics-essay that really took us a long time to accomplish our goals. Following is the conclusion part which is written by me:

According to the research given above, the theory has been successfully drawn by us. First of all, we all get the point that because of induction, there will always has some voltage in the secondary coil, no matter there is a device connected to it. That is, alternated magnetic field could bring alternated electric current and vise versa. The principle, however, is that the current through the primary coil is able to produce a magnetic field. Because of the presence of the iron bar, the effect of the mutual inductance will be magnified. Thus, it restrain the self-inductance and more emf will be in the secondary coil. Ideally, the relationship between the voltage of the primary coil and that of the secondary coil depends on the ratio of number of turns. If the number of turns in the secondary coil is greater, it will called a step-up transformer, and it can improve the voltage and decrease the current from the primary circuit. But if the primary coil’s number of turns is greater, the transformer will be named a step-down transformer which means the voltage will be reduced and the current will be increased. But in fact, since the influence is caused by self-inductance, the impedance will diminish the voltage in the secondary coil because the magnetic flux is dissipated. Despite the transformer, as for the instance of the launch system of the coils, magnetic field is widely utilized. As the content says, alternated electric current will produce a magnetic field. Thus, the coil is made up to two poles, and the object to be thrust is magnetized. Because of the relatively strong repulsive force, the object will be exerted a huge amount of force to be accelerated, and the consequence is, obviously, it will be shoot and travel with high velocity.

Why teens smoke cigarettes?

  Nowadays, smoking cigarettes is becoming more and more popular among the people all around the world. As a matter of fact, about one fifth of male adults have developed the habit of smoking, and the amount of people who smokes is still increasing quickly. According to the statics given out by WHO, about three million people died because of smoking, this phenomenon is really hazardous. However, more and more teenagers begin smoking, this would make some big issues for them. However, there is still a question we should ask: whether the cigarettes are innocuous for us? Actually, inside the cigarettes, there are plenty of harmful objects that would evoke some destruction of their organs.

  The three main toxic elements are called carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar. Carbon monoxide can easily get into human’s blood and combine with erythrocyte and make the blood toxic. And nicotine itself contains many pernicious substances. Tar could let our lungs become black and it can also accumulate inside the organs and it can make our faces pale. You see, smoking cigarettes can bring a lot of problems to people. So here comes a question again, why teens smoke cigarettes?

  In my opinion, there are three main reasons. First of all, teenagers think that they are just like adults, not children. As they grow up, they will imitate many adults’ behavior to prove that they are well-grown. And one of the behaviors is smoking. Just because most adults who smoke cigarettes have no problems, they are crazy and adamant enough that they won’t consider the result and the consequence of smoking.

  And the second reason can be known that some people think that smoking is a kind of fashion. At the present generation, smoking is the topic which is talked globally. Boys would smoke cigarettes in order to make themselves more attractive and be liked by some girls. Also, there are many people smoke in some famous movies. These people are mostly a kind of ostentatious boss and their majesty can’t be easily broken because smoking makes them cooler and shows that everyone should listen to them. If people have meals in some restaurants, they will smoke cigarettes to gain enjoyment. Teens tend to follow the fashion at present so they smoke.

  The last reason is that teens are not able to understand the society. They are under large pressure and they just want to reduce the stress by some methods such as smoking cigarettes. The origin of that pressure comes from many ways. For example, parents and teachers’ criticism may be the major cause of the stress, or some of the teens they don’t like other people. Their heart get pain by that, and they decide to smoke cigarettes and imbibe some satiating substances in order to diminish their pressure and take them away.

  Here is still the fact that smoking is becoming more and more popular. However, the harm of smoking may cause bad inflection to the teenagers. The toxic objects will make them keep smoking because they stimulate their brains with the reasons which are hard to determine now. I would like to accentuate that cigarettes are not panacea, they are not able to heal all our illnesses or diseases. In general, smoking has more disadvantages than benefits, and it takes away not only our wealth but our health. In conclusion, I really hope that every teenagers won’t smoke cigarettes, their life awaits, and they shouldn’t give up easily because of some hardships.



Full information about cigarettes:

Thesis 1:

Thesis 2:

Conservation of Energy

  1. Target

To find the kinetic friction constant μ according to the conservation of energy principle.

  1. Theory

The conservation of energy experiment states that the total energy of an isolated system cannot change—it is said to be conserved over time. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, but can change form.

Formula: Ek=Ug, W=Fd cos θ=ΔEk

  1. Experimental process

The known scalars are the mass of blocks M and m, and the M can be dragged to the left by the block m. However, the only tool we could use is ruler. So we need to calculate the relevant variables to get the expression of the μ.


Step 1: First of all, let the two blocks at rest.

Step 2: Release the m block, when the m block reaches the ground instantly, the first course ends and the M slides distance of h.

Step 3: Then the M still slides length of l to left and stops, this process is considered as the next course.

Step 4: During the two courses, using the law of conservation of energy or work-energy principle, we could get two equations to induce the μ.

  1. Data
M/kg m/kg h/m l/m Theoretical μ Average μ Error/%
1 0.198 0.2925 0.38 0.638 0.3165 0.2947 7.42%
2 0.198 0.2925 0.38 0.674 0.2946 0.2947 -0.01%
3 0.198 0.2925 0.38 0.670 0.2969 0.2947 0.77%
4 0.198 0.2925 0.38 0.673 0.2952 0.2947 0.19%
5 0.198 0.3225 0.38 0.642 0.2906 0.2947 -1.38%
6 0.198 0.3225 0.38 0.602 0.3160 0.2947 7.24%
7 0.198 0.3225 0.38 0.648 0.2871 0.2947 -2.56%
8 0.198 0.3225 0.38 0.646 0.2883 0.2947 -2.17%
9 0.198 0.3225 0.38 0.642 0.2906 0.2947 -1.38%
10 0.198 0.3925 0.38 0.564 0.2919 0.2947 -0.95%
11 0.198 0.3925 0.38 0.573 0.2860 0.2947 -2.95%
12 0.198 0.3925 0.38 0.572 0.2866 0.2947 -2.74%
13 0.198 0.3435 0.38 0.626 0.2853 0.2947 -3.18%
14 0.198 0.3435 0.38 0.606 0.2975 0.2947 0.96%
15 0.198 0.3435 0.38 0.607 0.2969 0.2947 0.75%


  1. Result

Assume that the ground UG=0, according to the law of energy conservation, during the first course, we could get:


Therefore, μ=(mgh-0.5Mv2)/Mgh

During the second course, according to the work-energy principle, we could get:


After that it is time for us to figure out the l.

Because μMgl=0.5Mv2,we just change the order of this formula, that is, l=(0.5Mv2)/μMg


  1. Error Analysis

During this experiment, there may be some errors occur inevitably. Here are some reasons.

First of all, it is not so appropriate for us to use ruler to measure the displacement driven by M, using ordinary timer can also cause some mistakes.

Secondly, to calculate the kinetic friction constant, we ignore the mass of the cord, and the friction between the cord and the pulley. This error is not so serious, but in a way, it should be put into one of the reasons.

To reduce the errors, I think the best way is to use some instruments that can measure the variables more accurately.