Launch a Project Experiment: Gibberellin and Brassinolide

AP Statistics Project Proposal

(It has to be an experiment, no observational study will be accepted)

Group members:

Name ID
Jiayi Liu 2014530054
Ziyi Wang 2014530070
Fan Xu 2014530268
Junhui He 2014530723
  1. Topic (What is the research question)

Comparison of the Effects of Gibberellin and Brassinolide on Soybean Seed Germination

  1. Sampling (Be specific about how subjects might be selected)

Randomly select 120 soybeans that are purchased from the same source.

  1. Variables:

Explanatory variables:

Type of plant hormone being used: categorical, no plant hormone (control), Gibberellin, Brassinolide, or both.

Response Variable: the height of seedlings after 2 days; the height of seedlings after 7 days.

  1. Treatment:

We have 4 kinds of treatments.

For the selected seeds, randomly assign them to different treatments, which is soaking the soybean seeds in specified solution for 12 hours. Each treatment has 30 seeds:

No plant hormone 10-6 mol/L Gibberellin
10-6 mol/L Brassinolide 5×10-7 mol/L Gibberellin + 5×10-7 mol/L Brassinolide

After soaking, transplant the seeds to soil. Water the seeds every 12 hours, take an account of the proportion of germinated seeds. Also measure the height of seedlings after 2 days and 7 days.

  1. What extraneous variables might influence the response?

Environmental factors, like temperature, light intensity, water, and even soil conditions all could have impact on seed germination.

  1. How does the design protect against its potential influence on the response through blocking, direct control, or randomization?

We would use preliminary experiment to ensure the optimal conditions for plant growth. Despite that, we would also apply:

Direct control: All the seeds are grown in the same room and are expose to the same environmental factors so that the extraneous factors’ effects are not confounded with those of the experimental variables.

Randomization: Randomly assign the seeds to different treatment groups to ensure that the experiment does not systematically favor one treatment over another.

Replication: There is considerable amount of individuals for each treatment to achieve an adequate number of observations for each experimental condition.

  1. Statistical method (e.g. we plan to use…method to explore … We hope to have a …result)

Normally, we would apply what we learned from descriptive statistics: Calculating important statistics, like the mean heights of seedlings, and representing them in the form of a bar chart for comparison.

For the part of inference, we plan to use two-sample t-test to explore whether there is a significant difference in the effects of different plant hormones in the heights of seedlings. We hope that there is significant difference so that we could have evidence to support that one plant hormone is greater in promoting germination than the other.

We also plan to use regression analysis to explore whether there is a linear relationship between the heights of seedlings after 2 days and those after 7 days for a specific treatment group, thus implicitly see if each hormone has prolonged effect.

Compare and Contrast the Force from A New Hope and the Way from Taoist ideals

The Force from A New Hope and the Way in Taoism present two great distinctive beliefs. The Force, an energy field created by all li

ving things that bestows individuals with idealistic courage, surrounds and penetrates them; the Way, on the other hand, is the mysterious, unnamable process through which everything in the universe happens, teaching people to be less attentive to the glory from material world.

The Force provides people with means of completing some challenging quests that could render great results, regardless of what they have. In A New Hope, it is a natural power contrary to a more technological power the Death Star uses. To show this, the Rebels and heroes are seen in more natural settings like deserts and forests while the Empire is seen in large technological settings. As the mentor Obi-wan Kenobi always says to Luke, “May the Force be with you.”, this sentence acts as a spiritual guide to Luke’s journey and gives him determination, which is a clear distinction with Darth Vader’s emphasis on brutal destruction. For instance, when he is going for a mission to destroy the Death Star, there are many missiles from his enemies that block his way. Commonly, he is not able to handle this situation by himself, but every moment the sentence flashes back to his mind, he can pay more attention toward the mission and be less stressed. In a way, the Force goes beyond the superiority of technology and makes something impossible come true.

By contrast, the Way emphasizes more about the balance between gain and loss throughout lifetime. If people is enlightened by it, they will be guided to understand the benefits and drawbacks of certain deeds. Also, the Way reduces the distinction between different things but rather integrate them into a whole. “Heaven and earth are ruthless, and treat the myriad creatures as straw dogs; the sage is ruthless, and treats the people as straw dogs.” (5.1-2) Under Taoist view, all the living things are under the same world, that they should be treated equally, since their existences have certain meanings that people should not depreciate. To reinforce the idea, Daodejing points out that the Way in which stricter and stricter laws create crime and stifle a country’s productivity. As people are members of the society, they need to obey the law of nature regardless of how powerful they are. In conclusion, it is feasible to say that the Way goes beyond the superiority of rules – the confinement – and makes something absurd explicable.

Though the Force and the Way differ in many perspectives, they share the ideal intellect of having people completing certain important goals. As Luke is able to defeat dreadful enemies and finally save princess Leia and her planet behind so many challenges through the encouragement of the Force, he has to think about the negative effects about his journey, like what the Way considers. Even though A New Hope does not have any mention about the Way, it actually exists throughout the storyline: As the Death Star’s evil plan irritates the Rebels, the Force comes into action to urge the heroes wiping out the vicious authority, giving Darth Vader a painful compensation.

In general, the Force and the Way both in a degree present people’s ideals about the right behaviors, but the Force can also be seen as a metaphysical power that prompts individuals to be dedicated to their actions, while the Way puts more emphasis on the two sides of a single event, benefiting, also punishing, the person who takes part in it.


Works Cited

“Star Wars: A New Hope” 20th Century Fox. Washington D.C.: L. George, 1977.

“Daodejing.” The Norton Anthology of World Literature. Trans. D.C. Lau. Third ed. Vol.A. New York and London: W. W. Norton, 2012, 1347-1354. Print.


A Story That Gets You Hooked

He became aware of his pounding headache as he regained consciousness. The enveloping darkness impeded his ability to identify his surroundings; it took him several moments to realize he was laying on the backseat of a moving vehicle. He tried to sit up and look out the window in an attempt to orient himself, but was immediately pushed back down by someone. A flash of light illuminated the interior of what he then recognized as his family’s minivan – and he noticed his mother in the driver’s seat. He sensed something was wrong. Her normally calm disposition had been replaced by one of trepidation and alarm.

“What’s go…”

“Shh! Stay down! Stay down! They can’t know you’re here! We have to get you to safety!” She whispered.

“Who can’t know…”


All he could see was an unfamiliar road illuminated by the headlights.

A Letter to My English Teacher

(Envisioning weakness of studying and practicing English, I genuinely wrote a letter to my teacher who taught me Honors English. This letter, though seemingly naïve to my present respect, really gave Elliot a deep impression.)

Dear Elliot,

I am very grateful for you that your lessons make my English better and better, and the courses are pretty interesting. I like them very much. However, I am a bit depressed because my English is not so good. Although most of students in our class got A+ in Senior-High School Entrance Examination including me, I seldom speak English with others. And the language I usually communicate with my parents is Chinese. Also, I graduated from an experimental school and I even had no opportunity to talk in English. But a large number of my classmates are all graduated from foreign language School, and they can nearly speak English every time.

At the beginning of the Honor English, I felt extremely anxious that I sometimes burst out some Chinese words unconsciously when I was speaking English. And when I heard that my classmates spoke fluently, I even wanted to punish myself because of my poor English, and I had a willing to recoil. The mark I got in TOEFL Junior is less than 800, and I understood that my English is in bottom of all the students in International System. But one of my classmates, is taught by Colin at present, has gained 117 in TOEFL. “What a intelligent genius!” I sighed after I knew that. While I am preparing for TOEFL, others are preparing for SAT. So I tried my best to improve my English, and I already have a plan to operate my time between these two exams.

What’s more, I dream to learn in one of the American universities in order to improve my academic abilities, and I can open my eyes to concern about global problems. During the courses, I found that the dream is nearer and nearer to me, and it is more likely to come true. I have been more confident after one month’s study. And I can also communicate with my classmates in English normally. I felt so happy that I made progress, and the progress is too extraordinary to imagine.

In Shenzhen Middle School, I have taken part in some organizations such as SUPER NOVA, We-Club, Model United Nations. Because these clubs are not only interesting, but also can help with my English.

And now it is 7-day-long-holiday. And I requested that I should talk with my parents in English for at least three hours per day. They agreed with me because it is a really nice idea, and my parents are well educated in English. I believe that it will be a big step of my English study, and I am looking forward to increase my abilities, too.

All in all, I really appreciate for you during this month. You are very helpful, and not strict with us. Thanks very much.

Best regards