Minded Statistics Mind Map

Mind Map

Recently, we had gone through all the materials covered by AP Statistics. As our teacher announced so far, we students, as separate groups, built mind maps to generalize the entire knowledge system inside the statistics class. I saw a lot of great mind maps from other groups that not only included the necessary things we have to know, but also demonstrated these things with innovative themes, like using some objects to allude to the processes of studying statistics.

The ideals and philosophy behind our groups’ construction were also clear. We separated the learned knowledge into four parts: Collecting Data, Exploring Data, Anticipating Patterns, and Making Inferences, with each part accompanied by certain structure of the plant body, while the plant itself is similar to we students, who are going to make our way to develop understanding about statistics.

The “root” – Collecting Data – is the basis of the entire plant. It is necessary to have good research methods in order to collect, analyze, and use the data we accessed, as root needs to absorb water and minerals from the soil so that the plant can grow taller.

The “stem and leaves” – Exploring Data and Anticipating Patterns – act as support for the plant. We have to harness statistical theories and methods to describe the overall data and predict the trends. Similarly, the stem structurally maintains the plant’s overall shape, where as leaves are required to make nutrients (sugars) through photosynthesis and transport them to the whole organism.

The “flower” – Making Inferences – could be regarded as a beautiful illustration of the plant’s characteristics. We need to infer from the accessed data to get evidence so that we could make conclusions. Like the determinate growth pattern of the apical meristem to floral part should be triggered by biochemical signals and environmental stimuli.

In fact, the plant we drew is a pea plant. It was used by Mendel to conduct research about genetics. Mendel utilized a series of statistical methods, like direct control of the variables, measuring the traits of pea plants, anticipating the probability of phenotypes, and checking his hypothesis using goodness-of-fit test. It was such these statistical methods that aided his generalization of the laws of inheritance. This event, on the other hand, enlightened us to sensibly harness our understanding of statistics and thus make contribution to the development of science, technology and society.

Hope all of you could finally get the “fruits” from statistics!

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My Little-Mindedness

If person is said to be “little-minded”, they have a very narrow perception of things and are often not willing to be steered into looking at something from a different perspective. It is the same as saying they are narrow-minded. They are not interested in, or capable of, looking at the “big picture”. The same meaning applies to me in a way that implies my temporary inability to wholly understand what my ultimate task is, and what I should do in order to optimize specific situations. Rather, all these aspects could be attributed to my ideological system which is not one-hundred-percent-explored during high school time. There are surely a lot of courses that could be pragmatic in the rest of my life, but cultivation of the understanding to macroscopic scale is more important, which a college, containing thousands of students from different nations, is able to provide me with.

Biodiversity is in Danger

Nowadays, people have already notice the problems of the environment. Since people waste too many resources, some kinds of creatures have nothing to eat. Thus, how to protect the biosphere is a serious challenge. Without millions of species, the earth would be a dead planet.

So first of all, it is necessary for us to know about a very important term—biodiversity.

Biodiversity means the magnitude of diversity with different species in a specific region. Every creatures in the nature are dependent on each other. Without plants, animals cannot survive. If there are no insects to deliver the pollen, many angiosperm plants could not be reproductive. Also, dead corpses can’t be dissociated without decomposers, and the cycle of substances will not be existing. Inside rain forest, the growth of a tree mainly due to the absorption of nutrients. Some bears even eat leaves, and lichens are placed on their backs. According to the statement above, we can see that one creature could provide a niche for another one.

As different populations live in the same community, they live together in the same condition. Although ecologists discover that different species have some relationships, but these relationships are still mystery. However, currently, scientists find a very important law that when one species disappears in a region, this region would suffer from some changes. For example, there is one species always eats some kinds of animals or plants, if the animals and plants die out across the food chain or food web, the food chain or food web will be totally broken and the numbers of this individual will be diminished. When predators leave a district, the species being predated will reproduce rapidly and overturn the capacity of the ecosystem. Similarly, if one of the symbiotic species disappears, the other species left along would also be influenced.

Biodiversity makes the structure of ecosystem more stable. If one ecosystem could keep its biodiversity, it is tended to be very steady; but if the species changes, the balance of this ecosystem will be disturbed. Moreover, biodiversity is very important for human’s life. For instance, aerobic respiration needs oxygen, and most of the oxygen comes from some species that could proceed photosynthesis. At the same time, because of biodiversity, human beings get their demanding foods, medicines and so on.

Extinction means one species disappears from the Earth. It is a natural process, during the history of geology, there are many catastrophes that account for extinction. Scientists predict that in every million species, there is about one species dies out annually. However recently, the speed of extinction is greater than any other times before. Hence scientists make a hypothesis which states that because of the demands of human being, the destruction of habitat and the land development, the acceleration of extinction is revealed.

The main factor that affects the decrease of the biodiversity is the disappearance of habitats. From 1970 to 1980, in the Amazon rain forest, thousands of hectares of forest are cultivated into meadow, and trees are cut down for the usage of firewood. This forest has nothing functional after several yeas, because the soil of rain forest is not suitable for cultivating crops. However, the cultivation of land makes the habitats disappear, and it is difficult to reconstruct them. And because of that, some animals and plants are threatened to extinction.

Habitat fragmentation means the large area of the habitat is separated into smaller fragments or islands under the human activities. The fragmentation of habitat will bring these consequences: The acceleration of the extinction of local species, the resistance of ecological process, colonization of exotic species, the insidious danger of fire disaster and the change of local climate. As the habitat is separated into smaller and smaller area, the biodiversity of this region will be simpler and simpler. Because when one species moves out from a region, other species that depends on it has no insurance about foods, so the population would decrease. Finally, the biodiversity of this region diminished rapidly. The habitat fragmentation causes geographical isolation, and then is the genetic isolation. Because if the habitat is very tiny, it is difficult for species to find opportunities to reproduce.

The other factor that threaten biodiversity is the habitat degradation. It is majorly due to the environment pollution. Atmospheric pollution will cause many diseases such as the stimulation of noses and eyes. And aquatic pollution could be fatal to species living in water, especially fishes. Since people fertilize so much phosphorous into the soil and give out so much industrial polluted water, a lot of polluted substances are created. When these substances enter rivers, streams, lakes and oceans, the ability of self-cleaning is decreased. And it strongly affects creatures live in water.

Therefore, we can see that any events that influence the ecosystem could bring negative effects, even though it benefits human beings themselves. But as we can see, the results are unexpected, only the protection of biodiversity could keep the earth evergreen forever. In this place, everyone should has the duty to take actions to do something to save the environment, and even save our planet.

A Debate: Parents Should be Able to Choose the Sex of Their Children

Honorable judges, dear opponents, Ladies and Gentlemen:

I stand in strong affirmation of today’s resolution that Heart of Darkness is a thoroughly racist text.

The issue suggests that in this round we shall focus on the time being. Thus, to win the debate, Con side must prove that there are better ways now to solve the problems that can only be solved by choosing children’s sex, and prove that parents’ choosing children’s sex should be completely banned.

Contention 1:

Affordable and ethical technology.

Coming to the issue today, my opponents (might) say the way to choose the children’s sex is abortion. But to get the facts straight, according to PGD, a Big Step Forward written by professor James Walls, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, which is abbreviated to PGD, is the technology being used to choose children’s sex since 1970s. Human’s sex is not decided until 20 days after fertilization. By PGD, parents can select children’s sex during the 20 days by changing the concentration of X and Y chromosomes. It provides a possibility of 75% to make the baby’s sex as expected. This means, by PGD, parents can choose their baby’s sex without killing anybody, and the selected babies would be as healthy and clever as the unselected ones. Now, PGD treatments are available all around the world. Many of them like the UK and China, PGD treatments are only used for special medical purposes. Others like USA, people can get PGD as long as they want to. The average price for a PGD treatment is from 1000 dollars to 3000 dollars. It does not require surgeries. Therefore it is proved over the years that a sex selection is affordable for the majority, and it does not harm anybody. So why shouldn’t we meet people’s satisfactory by PGD?

Contention 2:

Genetic disease.

Sub-point a.

Sex-limited inheritance causes hereditary diseases that are only caught by one sex.

According to Study of Hereditary Disease written by P Goodwin, there are over 4000 different kinds of hereditary diseases that are discovered. In every 100 new born babies, 3 to 5 of them get at least one hereditary disease. What’s more, a big part of the hereditary diseases is only caught by one certain sex, and most of them are incurable. For instance, over 250 kinds are only caught by male. The other sex carries the gene, which causes that disease, and passes it on to the next generation. The most famous example is Queen Victoria’s hemophilia. She had nine children, all her boys suffered from Hemophilia A, and her girls became the carriers of it. The hemophilia spread widely through European imperial families by marriages. Many royal men, including one of Victoria’s offspring, Prince Leopold died from small injuries because of Hemophilia. For now, we have a best way to prevent the diseases from occurring. That is to let the parents with genes that would cause the diseases to select the sex of their children. In this way, we can safely calculate that at least 20,000 people have been saved.

Sub-point b.

Chromosomal abnormality.

According to a study done by professor David C. Connor of UC Davis, 0.017% of babies’ sex chromosomes are abnormal. This makes them neither male nor female, but something else like intersex. For the time being, we have no comprehensive law to protect these people’s rights. For instance, most of the 224 countries have only restrooms for male and female. Which restrooms shall the abnormal ones go into? The only way to prevent them from getting hurt in this situation is to prevent them from being born. And this requires sex selection. My dear opponents might argue that this is sexism. However, it needs to be clarified in advance that this is not sexism, but the only thing we can do to protect these people in a world with sexism, unless my opponents have a way to kill sexism right now.

In conclusion, parents should be able to choose the sex of their children.

So please vote for us. Please vote for pro.

The Last Lecture

(The semester has come to an end, and it is unavoidable that the public speaking course will be ended. Before that, I have something more to say…)

Well, today is my last lecture that you can hear from me, after the speech I will quit my job because it is time for my retirement. Now all of you will graduate and then leave the college, I feel a bit missed, so in this place I would like to show something that is very important for you.

First of all, I would like to talk about my childhood. During that time, there was a experience which is meaningful for me. One day I walked thorough a street and saw some boys were bullying a girl. After I knew this, I walked straight to these boys and tried to stop the bullying. However these boys were strong enough and they were higher than me. Obviously, I got badly injured. These boys mocked me and then ran away and disappeared. I felt very disappointed at that time. Surprisingly, that girl stood up and shook my hand. She picked up some wild chrysanthemums and presented to me. I felt very jolly. After this experience, I learned a very significant sentence, “Rose given, fragrance in hand.” It is also appropriate for your daily life.

Next, the word I will share with you is called “pH”. As you all know, scientifically pH is the concentration of the hydrogen ion inside the aqueous solution. Yeah I have taught you already. But in this occasion, I would like to give another meaning about pH. It can also represent your instant emotion. Imagine what will happen when strong acid is in your mind. You will get crazy and irritable. This is not so bad because acidic personalities can be very vigorous and can bring a lot of possessions. But extreme behaviors may be harmful for someone. On the contrary, basic expression can be regard as strictness. These people can concentrate in doing a lot of things but they may be over thinking. Fortunately, if you combine these together, the result is neutral. That is, you created a buffer which can either be acidic and basic.

The third thing I would like to talk with you is called music. In my opinion, every person should be able to play at least one musical instrument or they could sing perfectly. This point of view even becomes some rules in many universities. Also, every time I go to the concert and listen to the symphony, I feel very relaxed. As you hear the orchestra’s harmonic tones, you have no reasons to be not attracted by it. Music brings us many comforts. So as you feel tired, don’t forget to listen to some songs, it will make you feel better. If necessary, express your emotion by singing or playing some musical instruments.

Do you ever know about your dream? Well, some of you may be not clear about it. In my mind, dream is a thing that seems very clear but you even cannot touch it. Once I dreamed to be a scientist. However, as I grew up, I saw that I had no talent in physics. Then I gave up and made a new dream. Day by day, dreams changed and changed again. But I didn’t made one of them come true. You see, I met this kind of hardship and sometimes I have to waive so do you. During your application to some companies, you may be rejected because of some mistakes during your interview. But do you really introspect yourselves, why you don’t accepted by them. You should think about it carefully.

In conclusion, I wish everybody will get a satisfying job, and hope to see you again after several years if I’m wholesome.

An Inspiring Story

Good morning, everyone. Today I would like to tell you a story that will cheer you up.

Long ago, an anonymous fly was born in a forest. When he went out from his spawn, he saw that another fly became old and then fell down and died. As he was confused about why it happened, one of the flies told that everyone only had one minute’s life.

The fly realized that he had spent a few seconds just now. Suddenly, he received a list and there were plenty of things needed to be done. At the first time, he felt hopeless because he was too weak to complete these things. Also, the amount of these things was too large, and it was difficult for him to finish them. “Can I really complete these things on time?” he asked himself. “Will they be meaningful for my life?” Time passed and passed, he had only fifty seconds. After some confusion, he decided to do them one by one without hesitation.

He flew to the sky and looked for something that could be done immediately. He saw that a beetle was trapped by spider web, so he found a small brunch and then cut the web. With appreciation, the beetle thanked him and they became friends. They flew everywhere and helped others by themselves. But unfortunately, the beetle fell down to a stream and disappeared.

However, the fly had no time to be sorrowful, because half a minute had passed during his lifetime. He looked at the list and saw that some things had been ticked. And the rest things were probably needed to be done by couple. Luckily, a female fly came to him and then they got married. They spent a lot of time in doing such as playing, reproducing, adventuring and so on. Just after the female fly was bitten by a bird. Almost everything had been done except looking at the starry sky and becoming famous.

But the sun was shining, how he could live to night? And how he could be paid attention to? Just that moment he lowered his head and felt frustrated. Five, four, three, two… He was dying, and no one could help him.

Abruptly, a liquid drop fell down and surrounded his body. Time was nearly paused. At that night, he saw the starry sky successfully. Day by day, millions of years passed, he was still inside the drop. One day a biologist discovered him and named the drop “amber”. The biologist brought the amber to a museum and many people came to see him and took photos. Therefore, he became famous.

He understood suddenly, sometimes we may think that it is hard for us to do something by ourselves. But if we only need to look for some methods or hopes, we can also do everything by our best. So why not try harder? Nothing is impossible, just trust it.

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TOEFL Speaking Transcript

Begin to respond after the beep, BEEP!

Everyone have their own school life including me. So today I would like to tell the difference between my junior middle school called Nanshan Experiment School and high school called Shenzhen Middle School. The environment in my junior middle school is clean and tidy, but its area is smaller than my high school. Because the high school is far from my home, I have to live in campus. What’s more, we sometimes contact with our classmates in my junior middle school, but the relationship in my high school is better than junior middle school, we always discuss some questions together in the library. Also, my junior middle school often cares about my study but my high school’s target is to cultivate a comprehensively compete person. I wish that my high school life will be promising in the future. That’s all.

Begin to respond after the beep, BEEP!

According to the market situation, we all know that a new electronic device will be cheaper after it is available for quite a few months. So in my opinion, it is better to wait for a while to purchase it. Why? Firstly, the new electronic device will be very expensive, and we even can’t afford it. But if we buy it after the price get down, we can save plenty of money. Secondly, some people may think that a newer device will be available when the new device is cheap. But for me, I think there are not so many differences between such as samsung galaxy s3 and 4. Thirdly, if we buy a new device, there may be some problems in it. For example, recent news say that iphone 6 can be bend. So it is necessary to wait for some time to make sure whether the device is safe. These are all the reasons.

Begin to respond after the beep, BEEP!

Chinese education is very popular among all the countries in the world because of its strictness. In China, teachers always care about their students’ study, and they are punished by parents if their mark is low. However, in my opinion, it is not suitable for us to accept rigorous education. And I would like to give some suggestions to it. First of all, I think it is not necessary to judge whether the students can be offered according to their entrance examination. The daily attendance and participation are also important. Second, students need to be given some significant curriculum to grow their comprehensive ability. Third, because of the mountains of homework, I think we can also let the assignments be more interesting. Teachers can let children do some experiment or finish their works on the Internet.

Begin to respond after the beep, BEEP!

Nowadays, technology is developing faster and faster, and smart phones are given more and more ability to do some works instead of the computers. So in my point of view, mobile phones are vital to today’s business. The first reason is that in the past, people need to bring their heavy laptop to their company, but now they can finish their missions by touching on the screen. And the second reason is that we can utilize it to take some photos and videos of the documents if necessary, then it is pretty convenient for us to work for them. Also, thirdly, we are able to manage our life if the businessmen are really busy, they can arrange their schedule with their smart phones, and they don’t need to worry about anything because the mobile phones can do everything as many as they can.

Is GMF Good For Us?

Good afternoon everyone, today I would like to share my opinion on the genetically modified food, it is also called GMF.

As we all know, a few years ago, scientists find a way to increase the production as soon as possible. Its name is transgenic technology. The products called GMF are created by combining some excellent plant’s gene in correct order. So there is a question, is genetically modified food safe for us?

In my opinion, it is not harmful for us. Why? First of all, every kinds of GMF has been experimented, and scientists are very careful and rigorous to make sure that it is safe. Secondly, in order to ensure the quality of the traditional crops, farmers will use pesticides that GMF won’t utilize to kill the insects. Thirdly, many people may think that the gene come from the food will be replaced to the human body, but it is a kind of misunderstanding. In fact, wherever the gene comes from, after the container of gene—DNA, is put into the human body, it will be decomposed by enzyme. So it is impossible that food can bring genetic information into the human’s.

On the contrary, GMF benefits us a lot. They can solve the problems of famine and reduce the pollution caused by pesticides. What’s more, GMF can save the cost and make the price cheaper so that we can afford it. Also, the nutrition is more sufficient, and the extra value of it is immeasurable. Because of the creation of GMF, many industry is improved.

These are my opinions in GMF. Thanks for listening!

Narration of the Fly Story

Good morning, everyone. Today I would like to tell you a story that will cheer you up.

Long long ago, an anonymous fly was born in a forest. When he went out from his spawn, he saw that another fly became old and then fell down and died. As he was confused about why it happened, one of the flies told that everyone only had one minute’s life.

The fly realized that he had spent a few seconds just now. Suddenly, he received a list and there were plenty of things needed to be done. At the first time, he felt hopeless because he was too weak to complete these things. Also, the amount of these things was too large, and it was difficult for him to finish them. “Can I really complete these things on time?”he asked himself. “Will they be meaningful for my life?” Time passed and passed, he had only fifty seconds. After some confusion, he decided to do them one by one without hesitation.

He flew to the sky and looked for something that could be done immediately. He saw that a beetle was trapped by spider web, so he found a small brunch and then cut the web. With appreciation, the beetle thanked him and they became friends. They flew everywhere and helped others by themselves. But unfortunately, the beetle fell down to a stream and disappeared.

However, the fly had no time to be sorrowful, because half a minute had passed during his lifetime. He looked at the list and saw that some things had been ticked. And the rest things were probably needed to be done by couple. Luckily, a female fly came to him and then they got married. They spent a lot of time in doing such as playing, reproducing, adventuring and so on. Just after the female fly was bitten by a bird. Almost everything had been done except looking at the starry sky and becoming famous.

But the sun was shining, how he could live to night? And how he could be paid attention to? Just that moment he lowered his head and felt frustrated. Five, four, three, two… He was dying, and no one could help him.

Abruptly, a liquid drop fell down and surrounded his body. Time was nearly paused. At that night, he saw the starry sky successfully. Day by day, millions of years passed, he was still inside the drop. One day a biologist discovered him and named the drop “amber”. The biologist brought the amber to a museum and many people came to see him and took photos. Therefore, he became famous.

He understood suddenly, sometimes we may think that it is hard for us to do something by ourselves. But if we only need to look for some methods or hopes, we can also do everything by our best. So why not try harder? Nothing is impossible, just trust it.

 

The First Public Speech

Hello, my name is Xu Fan. It is my honor to stand here to have the opportunity to attend this interview. I’m optimistic, sanguine and confident. As a biology lover, I’m curious about every creatures in the world. And I’m keen on exploring the microscopic structures of everything, I think it is interesting. Of course, heredity is one of my favorite parts of biology, because this subject can help me analyze the probability of the traits shown in filial, understand the principle of meiosis and even know how to synthesize proteins. Moreover, the applications of heredity is wide-ranged, and they really help many people to solve some confusing problems. I think I have the ability to get to this symposium and discuss widely with my partners. It can not only impart further knowledge but also make my value come true. Despite textbook, I think it is more meaningful to participate in this forum. Thanks to teacher giving me so many sources, I could guarantee that after this experience, I will be able to help more people. In general, I sincerely hope that teacher could give me this chance to attend this conference. That’s all thank you.